1fej.gif (5586 bytes)2fej.gif (8211 bytes)

AgrárKiállítások listája || Agrár-Kereskedelmi Oldalak || AgriMarket Section

 

3fej.gif (5592 bytes)
Email: Club@agroservice.hu Frisstve: 2003-01-09 Visitors:

Mangalica Információk


The Hungarian Mangalica

Dr. Radnóczi László, OMMI, Hungary

 

The typical fat type breed was developed in the 19th century in the Carpathian basin. As the breed does not require special care and has good fattening ability and excellent fat production from the beginning of the 19th century until 1950 it was the most popular swine breed in Hungary. The fat, bacon and not at least its salami were demanded products in the European market , so it was rightly world famous in its time.

In period of the development of the breed the main purpose of hog keeping was to utilize the wet, swampy pastures and forests. The typical breeds of the 18th century were the "reed-hog" from the Great Hungarian Plain and the "Bakonyi" from the woods of the Transdanubian hills, whereas the voluminous, red coloured "Szalontai" was found in the eastern border of the Great Hungarian Plain. Late maturity, slow growth, poor dressing percentage and tough meet, stingy, substandard bacon were characteristic of these breeds. Their advantage was the resistance to the rigours of weather and diseases., The so called "spiny" hogs, which did not differ much from the wild boar, as they were outstanding runners and ready to bite, were the most hardy breeds in the Carpathian Mountains.

The half-wild herds walked around the forests and grazing lands all the year round, the sows farrowed in self-made nests placed in reeds and shrub bottom . Piglets constantly following the sow, grew into skinny young pigs on the poor grazing lands, spent the winter outside and by digging up scraps left on agricultural lands or by acorn mast they put on some meat and bacon, thus became suitable for slaughtering at two years old.

.Acorn mast in oaks and beeches covering rather vast areas at that was the mostly practised method of fattening. Sometimes the tenths collected from the herds yielded a higher profit to forest owners than they could make on wood cutting.

According to the trade practices of that age, pigs reared in great number in the southern countries were driven by grazing through the Transdanubian oaks in autumn to the Austrian and Czech towns.

As a result of the wider use of maize production and the ploughing of forests and grazing lands and forming to arable area, there was a radical change in the conditions of keeping and feeding from the second half of the 18th century. In the 19th century the regulation of the river-ways accelerated this process. Due to the change of market requirements, there was a greater demand for fat and bacon of good quality and less fibrous meat.

The extensive husbandry could not cope with these conditions. The old breeds, such as Bakonyi and Szalontai were taken to the farmyards of the domains and the small owners, fed with maize and crossed with the "Sumadia" breed of Serbian origin. The constitution of the animals have gradually changed and the "fat-type" hogs were developed. Sows of the slow growing type were mated with the "new-type" boars. Thus quickly growing pigs were inclined to put on weight faster than the old breeds. One of the forerunners of these changes was the Kisjenő domain of the Royal Archduke, József in Arad county.

The Archduke received as a present a herd of the "Sumadia" breed, including 10 sows and 2 boars from the Toptshider herd of Prince Milos near Belgrade in 1830. The breeding stock developed in this domain acquired a reputation and considerably contributed to the development of the new breed, the Hungarian Mangalica pig.

At that time, the different types of curly-hair hogs were widely held in the coastal region of the Mediterranean Sea and extending from the Balkan to the highland area of Hungary of the day and by the middle of the century the Mangalica breed was developed from these breeds and almost exclusively bred in the maize producing regions of the country from 1860. There was some difference between the animals kept under good conditions of the domains and those raised by the small farms on the pasture and fed on mast.

The "blond" (szoke) Mangalica proved to be the most popular, but other colour variants, such as black, "swallow-bellied" (fecskehasú), red and brownish-grey (wolf) and the wild type (baris) could be also found. After the turn of the century, the markets of Vienna and Prague and the processing industry determined the techniques of producing fat-type hogs. At that time, large industrial hog-fattening plants were built in Nagytétény and Győr, and the salami production acquiring a world-wide reputation in later years, was also started. The selection, herd-book keeping of hogs as well as the definition of breed standards, specific type and performance requirements were put into practice. Outstanding experts of the age, as Béla Dorner Enesei and Ferenc Csáky, leader of the Kőbánya Fattening Plant, were engaged in the breeding of Mangalica.

The National Society of Fat-Type Hog Breeders, established in 1927, organized the purposeful improvement of the breed. The population of registered hogs included only 1-2000 animals in the 20s, however this number increased to 30.000 till 1943. Breeding animals of 66 Blond Mangalica, 7 Swallow Bellied Mangalica, and 5 Szalontai red-haired Mangalica stock breeding farms were advertised for sale in a fair-calendar of 1940 in Hungary. Due to the activity of the National Association of Animal Breeding Organisations another boom of breeding started after the World War II, then by the rapid decrease of the number of Mangalica hogs, the breed gave place to the recent meat-type pig breeds.

Records made in different regions of the country give various descriptions of Mangalica hog bred in several periods.

Recently the protection of native breeds and the hobby keeping of these animals had come into fashion and in connection with this many reports and publications of the Mangalica hog was issued . Curly and wild-type hogs were often considered as Mangalica, although they by no means meet the requirements of breed characteristics this breed. Therefore the concept of Mangalica has to be specified in the first place to determine the scope for which this expression can be properly used for the breed.

From the point of view of gene-conservation, pure-bred pigs corresponding to the detailed breed descriptions made at turn of the century, so meeting the herd-book regulations, can be considered as Mangalica. As regards the breeding goal, Mangalica is a fat type hog with high performance. The descendants of other primitive curly breeds, that can be found here and there, and crossings of Mangalica with ancient or new breeds cannot be considered as animals belonging to the breed, notwithstanding that each more or less curly animal is called Mangalica in the everyday wording.

Mangalica has a low fertility with an average litter size of 5-6 piglets. Litters with 9-10 piglets are accounted exceptional cases. The low fertility, resulting from the development of the breed and the extreme utilization for fat type, is genetically determined to such an extent that despite the selection of many decades no effective improvement could be achieved in this field.

Mangalica varieties, to be considered as pure-bred, fully described in the breeding documents, are as follows :

Blond mangalica (Szőke)

Swallow-bellied mangalica (Fecskehasú)

Red mangalica (Vörös)

Pure breeding of other varieties (black, wolf, baris, wild) cannot be solved for the moment, their re-creation is questionable, and means a complicated professional task. Animals of this colour are mixtures of the Mangalica colour variants, or they come from crossings carried out with other breeds.

Blond Mangalica

The most popular variant. Generally if we do not use other attribute, on hearing the Mangalica denomination, one thinks about Blond Mangalica.

Hungarian Mangalica is a fat-type hog of medium body size with fine, but very strong skeleton.

Mangaabra1.jpg (41960 bytes)

Fur of the Blond Mangalica can be found from grey to yellow and yellowish red in each variant, the yellowish red coloration is caused by keeping and soil conditions.

The skin of the Mangalica is pigmented greyish-black, the openings of the body, the mouth, the rim of nose are black and tits and hoofs also have black colour.

The "Wellmann fleck" , a bright fleck (3-5 cm in diameter) with gradual transition on the pigmented skin, being also Mangalica breed character, can be found on the lower edge of the ear.

The fur is dense and long, curling like chips in winter, more tender, shorter and more straight in summer. The curling is a breed character, however the ringed, strongly curling fur and the coarse straight bristles on the back or flanks are not desired. The excessively fine "woolly" fur is not even desired. The seasonal moulting of Mangalica is very typical and due to the thick , curly winter hair is remarkable. Professionally kept and fed animals cast the thick hair in the spring, their summer fur is short - threaded with plain surface. The pigmented, dark skin shows better through the thin fur, therefore the colour of animals seems darker, brownish grey in summer. Due to bad feeding, or disease the moulting of some animals lasts longer, thus animals with thick, curly fur can be found in the herd also in summer.

The head is medium long, the profile of the nose is slightly curved, the ears are medium large and leaning forward. Eyes are brown with black brow and lashes.

The tail-base is typically thick, white tail tassel, but its interior is always black.

The minimum number of tits is 5-5 on both sides.

The back-line is straight, or slightly curved; groin is short or medium long. The skeleton is fine but very firm.

Undesirable defects of the breed character:

- light or pink skin on the belly

- pigment-less opening of the body

- dark brown hair tips

- ears scattered with brown or black hairs

- too fine, or too coarse hair

- too small upright, or too large lop-ears

Non-allowable defects of the breed character :

- white, distinct flecks on the skin

- black or brown flecks on the fur

- yellow or striped yellow nails

- pink tits

- completely white tail tassel

Swallow Bellied Mangalica

The breed was developed in southern Hungarian and Croatian territories from the crossing of Blond Mangalica with the hog of Szerémség (Syrmium). Back and flank have black fur, but the lower part of the body, the belly and chaps extending to the corner of the mouth, are yellow, white or silvery grey.

Excellent constitutional strength and resistance to weather and keeping conditions, coarser hair are characteristic of the breed. The present Swallow Bellied hogs are smaller than the Blond Mangalica, however according to the descriptions it was a robust animal with lower dressing percentage than in the case of Blond Mangalica and slower gain, but higher adult weight could be achieved.

The skin of the Swallow Bellied Mangalica is pigmented greyish-black, the openings of the body, the mouth, the rim of nose are black and tits and hoofs also have black colour.

mangaabra2.jpg (51941 bytes)

The "Wellmann fleck" , a bright fleck (3-5 cm in diameter) with gradual transition on the pigmented skin, being also Mangalica breed character, can be found on the lower edge of the ear.

The fur is dense and long, curling like chips in winter, more tender, shorter and more straight in summer. Curling is a breed character, however the ringed, strongly curling fur and the coarse straight bristles on the back or flanks are not desired. The excessively fine "woolly" fur is not even desired. The

seasonal moulting of Mangalica is very typical and due to the thick , curly winter hair is remarkable. Professionally kept and fed animals cast the thick hair in the spring, their summer fur is short - threaded with plain surface. The pigmented, dark skin shows better through the thin fur, therefore the colour of animals seems darker, brownish grey in summer. Due to bad feeding, or disease the moulting of some animals lasts longer, thus animals with thick, curly fur can be found in the herd also in summer.

The head is medium long, the profile of the nose is slightly curved, the ears are medium large and leaning forward. Eyes are brown with black brow and lashes.

The tail-base is typically thick, white tail tassel, but its interior is always black.

The minimum number of tits is 5-5 on both sides.

The back-line is straight, or slightly curved; groin is short or medium long. The skeleton is fine but very firm.

Undesirable defects of the breed character:

- light or pink skin on the belly

- pigment-less opening of the body

- white hair tips on the body side and the back

- light colour also covers the outer side of legs or highly draws up on the two sides of body

- too fine, or too coarse hair

- too small upright, or too large lop-ears

 

Non-allowable defects of the breed character :

- white, distinct flecks on the skin

- white or brown flecks on the fur

- yellow or striped yellow nails

- pink tits

- completely white tail tassel.

 

The Red Mangalica

Red Mangalica derives from the crossing of the ancient Hungarian Szalontai hog with Blond Mangalica. The traditional site of keeping of the breed is in the eastern region of the Great Plain, near Transylvania. The fur is darker or reddish brown of lighter shade. Body size and weight exceed the other Mangalica breeds, consequently it has a higher growth rate and fertility. Skin of the Red Mangalica is pigmented greyish-black, body openings and rim of nose, tits and nails are also black.

The skin of Red Mangalica is pigmented greyish-black, the openings of the body, the mouth, the rim of nose are black and tits and hoofs also have black colour.

The "Wellmann fleck" , a bright fleck (3-5 cm in diameter) with gradual transition on the pigmented skin, being also Mangalica breed character, can be found on the lower edge of the ear.

The fur is dense and long, curling like chips in winter, more tender, shorter and more straight in summer. Curling is a breed character, however the ringed, strongly curling fur and the coarse straight bristles on the back or flanks are not desired. The excessively fine "woolly" fur is not even desired.

The seasonal moulting of Mangalica is very typical and due to the thick , curly winter hair is remarkable. Professionally kept and fed animals cast the thick hair in the spring, their summer fur is short - threaded with plain surface. The pigmented, dark skin shows better through the thin fur, therefore the colour of animals seems darker, brownish grey in summer. Due to bad feeding, or disease the moulting of some animals lasts longer, thus animals with thick, curly fur can be found in the herd also in summer.

The head is medium long, the profile of the nose is slightly curved, the ears are medium large and leaning forward. Eyes are brown with black brow and lashes.

The tail-base is typically thick, white tail tassel, but its interior is always black.

The minimum number of tits is 5-5 on both sides.

The back-line is straight, or slightly curved; groin is short or medium long. The skeleton is fine but very firm.

Undesirable defects of the breed character:

- light or pink skin on the belly

- pigment-less opening of the body

- black bristle or hair tips

- ears scattered with brown or black hairs

- too fine, or too coarse hair

- too small upright, or too large lop-ears

Non-allowable defects of the breed character :

- white, distinct flecks on the skin

- light or dark flecks on the fur

- yellow or striped yellow nails

- pink tits

completely red or white tail tassel

light brown eyes

World-famous fat-type hog

The sensational results attained by the Hungarian Mangalica breeders in fattening, proved to be unsurpassable if one tried to use other breeds for this purpose.

Based on the most popular technology the fattening schedule started with 12 and 18 months old animals, kept previously on pasture, on original grass, or they were used for picking up and rooting scraps after harvesting of crops.

Owing to the plenty of movements, growings 50-70 kg in weight have a strong bone structure capable of bearing this big weight. Barrows and culled sows are also desirable for this purpose, as they can produce a higher end-weight.

The "express fattening" schedule elaborated by Ferenc Csáky was started with 4-6 months old young pigs, weighing 25- 40 kg and with satisfactory feeding they reached the 180-200 kg slaughtering weight at the age of 13-14 months.

In the course of fattening practically only barley and maize were used for feeding, because according to contemporary professional opinions feeding for fat production has low protein requirement. In the first period of fattening mostly barley was given, then the proportion of maize gradually increased to two-thirds, and in the last stage solely maize was fed. It was also customary to complete the feed with potato.

In the course of the 6 months' intensive fattening hogs reached a weight exceeding 200 kg, however the occurrrence of animals weighing 250-300 kg was often the case. Hogs of record-weight exceeded even the 500 kg.

The real aim of fattening was to reach the possibly highest weight and much fat.

 

The program of conservation and utilisation of native breeds

The main purpose is to conserve the genes of the original Mangalica breed in unaltered form. All the three variants should keep their natural variability without the deleterious effects of inbreeding or loss of genes existing in the present population.

In recent years an increased interest in Mangalica keeping could be experienced. One of the motives is the nostalgia for tastes of traditional foods experienced many years ago in the countryside. The other motive is that after the political change in Hungary the new owners of pastures of poor quality, temporarily inundated river flats, woodlands introduce numerous Mangalica hogs to reasonably utilize the field. In this case the conditions are increasingly more similar to the period before the Mangalica breed was developed.

Some initiatives of the purposeful professional exploitation are also revealed.

As the popularity of the breed increases one has to pay attention to the fact of low population size of the pure breed requiring a rigorous and thoughtful breeding program.

Providing mangalica breeds is supported by the State of Hungary. The competent authority is the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control (1024 Budapest, Keleti K. u. 24.). Exercises about breeding and keeping herd-book are made by National Association of Mangalica Breeders (4032 Debrecen, Böszörményi u. 138.)

Number of registered livestock in 31. December 2000. was the following:

Blond mangalica: 20 farms 811 sows

Swallow bellied mangalica: 10 farms 112 sows

Red mangalica: 8 farms 126 sows

 

 

Mangalica az Interneten:

Képek Kozárdról és a Hortobágyról

Primagro Mangalica Tötrzstenyészet

http://www.date.hu/info/animaldb/sertes/fajta6.htm

Bergendy István "Parasztreggeli - akár ebédnek is " 

 

Home International Pages Hungarian Pages


Copyright © 1997-2001 by AGROSERVICE Ltd., Hungary. All rights reserved.